A rapid and automated computational approach to the design of multistable soft actuators

Mehran Mirramezani, Deniz Oktay, Ryan P. Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We develop an automated computational modeling framework for rapid gradient-based design of multistable soft mechanical structures composed of non-identical bistable unit cells with appropriate geometric parameterization. This framework includes a custom isogeometric analysis-based continuum mechanics solver that is robust and end-to-end differentiable, which enables geometric and material optimization to achieve a desired multistability pattern. We apply this numerical modeling approach in two dimensions to design a variety of multistable structures, accounting for various geometric and material constraints. Our framework demonstrates consistent agreement with experimental results, and robust performance in designing for multistability, which facilities soft actuator design with high precision and reliability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109090
JournalComputer Physics Communications
StatePublished - May 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • General Physics and Astronomy


  • End-to-end differentiation
  • Inverse design
  • Multistable structures
  • Optimization
  • Soft robots


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