Reductive radical cyclizations are ubiquitous in organic synthesis and have been applied to the synthesis of structurally complex molecules. N-Heterocyclic motifs can be prepared through the cyclization of α-haloamides; however, slow rotation around the amide C N bond results in preferential formation of an acyclic hydrodehalogenated product. Here, we compare four different methods for preparing γ-, δ-, ϵ-, and ζ-lactams via radical cyclization. We found that a photoenzymatic method using flavin-dependent 'ene' reductases affords the highest level of product selectivity. We suggest that through selective binding of the cis-amide isomer, the enzyme preorganizes the substrate for cyclization, helping to avoid premature radical termination.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry
- lactam synthesis
- radical chemistry