A photo-assisted electrochemical-based demonstrator for green ammonia synthesis

Xiaolu Liu, Zhurui Shen, Xinyue Peng, Lu Tian, Ran Hao, Lu Wang, Yangfan Xu, Yuping Liu, Christos T. Maravelias, Wei Li, Geoffrey A. Ozin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Bridging laboratory research and practical utilization is of crucial importance for the development of green ammonia synthetic technologies. A decentralized photo-assisted electrochemical-based demonstrator has been proposed for green ammonia synthesis from renewable electricity, air and water, where well-known defect-laden WO3 is used as the working electrode, and a commercially available PV panel supplies renewable electricity. In this demonstrator, defect-laden WO3 exhibits the optimum electrochemical NH3 formation rate (4.51 × 10–12 mol s−1 cm−2) in 0.1 M K2SO4 in a photovoltaic electrochemical (PV-EC) system. A system-level energy and cost analysis was conducted to investigate its economic viability and a general evaluation tool for system performance and cost estimation was proposed. This advance enables the possibility of integrating the small-scale green ammonia demonstrator into a stand-alone farm system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)826-834
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Energy Chemistry
StatePublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Electrochemistry


  • Ammonia synthesis
  • Electrocatalysis
  • Electrochemical demonstrator
  • Nitrogen reduction reaction
  • System-level energy and cost analysis


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