A pair of sub-Neptunes transiting the bright K-dwarf TOI-1064 characterized with CHEOPS

Thomas G. Wilson, Elisa Goffo, Yann Alibert, Davide Gandolfi, Andrea Bonfanti, Carina M. Persson, Andrew Collier Cameron, Malcolm Fridlund, Luca Fossati, Judith Korth, Willy Benz, Adrien Deline, Hans Gustav Florén, Pascal Guterman, Vardan Adibekyan, Matthew J. Hooton, Sergio Hoyer, Adrien Leleu, Alexander James Mustill, Sébastien SalmonSérgio G. Sousa, Olga Suarez, Lyu Abe, Abdelkrim Agabi, Roi Alonso, Guillem Anglada, Joel Asquier, Tamas Bárczy, David Barrado Navascues, Susana C.C. Barros, Wolfgang Baumjohann, Mathias Beck, Thomas Beck, Nicolas Billot, Xavier Bonfils, Alexis Brandeker, Christopher Broeg, Edward M. Bryant, Matthew R. Burleigh, Marco Buttu, Juan Cabrera, Sébastien Charnoz, David R. Ciardi, Ryan Cloutier, William D. Cochran, Karen A. Collins, Knicole D. Colón, Nicolas Crouzet, Szilard Csizmadia, Melvyn B. Davies, Magali Deleuil, Laetitia Delrez, Olivier Demangeon, Brice Olivier Demory, Diana Dragomir, Georgina Dransfield, David Ehrenreich, Anders Erikson, Andrea Fortier, Tianjun Gan, Samuel Gill, Michaël Gillon, Crystal L. Gnilka, Nolan Grieves, Sascha Grziwa, Manuel Güdel, Tristan Guillot, Jonas Haldemann, Kevin Heng, Keith Horne, Steve B. Howell, Kate G. Isaak, Jon M. Jenkins, Eric L.N. Jensen, Laszlo Kiss, Gaia Lacedelli, Kristine Lam, Jacques Laskar, David W. Latham, Alain Lecavelier Des Etangs, Monika Lendl, Kathryn V. Lester, Alan M. Levine, John Livingston, Christophe Lovis, Rafael Luque, Demetrio Magrin, Wenceslas Marie-Sainte, Pierre F.L. Maxted, Andrew W. Mayo, Brian McLean, Marko Mecina, Djamel Mékarnia, Valerio Nascimbeni, Louise D. Nielsen, Göran Olofsson, Hugh P. Osborn, Hannah L.M. Osborne, Roland Ottensamer, Isabella Pagano, Enric Pallé, Gisbert Peter, Giampaolo Piotto, Don Pollacco, Didier Queloz, Roberto Ragazzoni, Nicola Rando, Heike Rauer, Seth Redfield, Ignasi Ribas, George R. Ricker, Martin Rieder, Nuno C. Santos, Gaetano Scandariato, François Xavier Schmider, Richard P. Schwarz, Nicholas J. Scott, Sara Seager, Damien Ségransan, Luisa Maria Serrano, Attila E. Simon, Alexis M.S. Smith, Manfred Steller, Chris Stockdale, Gyula Szabó, Nicolas Thomas, Eric B. Ting, Amaury H.M.J. Triaud, Stéphane Udry, Vincent Van Eylen, Valérie Van Grootel, Roland K. Vanderspek, Valentina Viotto, Nicholas Walton, Joshua N. Winn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations

Abstract

We report the discovery and characterization of a pair of sub-Neptunes transiting the bright K-dwarf TOI-1064 (TIC 79748331), initially detected in the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) photometry. To characterize the system, we performed and retrieved the CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite (CHEOPS), TESS, and ground-based photometry, the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) high-resolution spectroscopy, and Gemini speckle imaging. We characterize the host star and determine Teff, ☆=4734± 67 K, R☆=0.726 ± 0.007 R⊙, and M☆=0.748 ± 0.032 M⊙. We present a novel detrending method based on point spread function shape-change modelling and demonstrate its suitability to correct flux variations in CHEOPS data. We confirm the planetary nature of both bodies and find that TOI-1064 b has an orbital period of Pb = 6.44387 ± 0.00003 d, a radius of Rb = 2.59 ± 0.04 R⊕, and a mass of Mb = 13.5-1.8+1.7 M⊕, whilst TOI-1064 c has an orbital period of Pc = 12.22657+0.00005-0.00004d, a radius of Rc = 2.65 ± 0.04 R⊕, and a 3σ upper mass limit of 8.5 M⊕. From the high-precision photometry we obtain radius uncertainties of ∼1.6 per cent, allowing us to conduct internal structure and atmospheric escape modelling. TOI-1064 b is one of the densest, well-characterized sub-Neptunes, with a tenuous atmosphere that can be explained by the loss of a primordial envelope following migration through the protoplanetary disc. It is likely that TOI-1064 c has an extended atmosphere due to the tentative low density, however further radial velocities are needed to confirm this scenario and the similar radii, different masses nature of this system. The high-precision data and modelling of TOI-1064 b are important for planets in this region of mass-radius space, and it allow us to identify a trend in bulk density-stellar metallicity for massive sub-Neptunes that may hint at the formation of this population of planets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1043-1071
Number of pages29
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume511
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Keywords

  • planets and satellites: composition
  • planets and satellites: detection
  • planets and satellites: interiors
  • stars: individual: TOI-1064 (TIC 79748331, Gaia EDR3 6683371847364921088)
  • techniques: photometric
  • techniques: radial velocities

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