A novel torsion/bending element for dynamic relaxation modeling

Michael R. Barnes, Sigrid M. Adriaenssens, Meghan Krupka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


This paper proposes and validates a three degrees of freedom element formulation that accounts for torsion and transverse bending of three-dimensional curved elements in explicit numerical analyses methods such as Dynamic Relaxation. Using finite difference modeling, in-plane distortions and moments, the increment of twist (and hence torsion) and out-of-plane bending deformations are determined. Numerical stability and convergence limits of the element are discussed. Two sets of circular arc test cases validate the accuracy of the element against theoretical and six degrees of freedom finite-element results. This element is widely applicable and found in strained grid shells and spline stressed membranes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-67
Number of pages8
JournalComputers and Structures
StatePublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


  • Bending
  • Dynamic relaxation
  • Finite difference
  • Form finding
  • Structural analysis
  • Torsion


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