A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition

Susan T. Fiske, Amy J.C. Cuddy, Peter Glick, Jun Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3030 Scopus citations

Abstract

Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes' intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (paternalistic) or high competence with low warmth (envious), and (c) distinct emotions (pity, envy, admiration, contempt) differentiate the 4 competence-warmth combinations. Stereotypically, (d) status predicts high competence, and competition predicts low warmth. Nine varied samples rated gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability out-groups. Contrary to antipathy models, 2 dimensions mattered, and many stereotypes were mixed, either pitying (low competence, high warmth subordinates) or envying (high competence, low warmth competitors). Stereotypically, status predicted competence, and competition predicted low warmth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)878-902
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Volume82
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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