We report the discovery and Doppler mass measurement of a 7.4 days 2.3 R ⊕ mini-Neptune around a metal-poor K dwarf BD+29 2654 (TOI-2018). Based on a high-resolution Keck/HIRES spectrum, the Gaia parallax, and multiwavelength photometry from the UV to the mid-infrared, we found that the host star has T eff = 4174 − 42 + 34 K, log g = 4.62 − 0.03 + 0.02 , [Fe/H] = − 0.58 ± 0.18, M * = 0.57 ± 0.02 M ⊙, and R * = 0.62 ± 0.01 R ⊙. Precise Doppler measurements with Keck/HIRES revealed a planetary mass of M p = 9.2 ± 2.1 M ⊕ for TOI-2018 b. TOI-2018 b has a mass and radius that are consistent with an Earthlike core, with a ∼1%-by-mass hydrogen/helium envelope or an ice-rock mixture. The mass of TOI-2018 b is close to the threshold for runaway accretion and hence giant planet formation. Such a threshold is predicted to be around 10M ⊕ or lower for a low-metallicity (low-opacity) environment. If TOI-2018 b is a planetary core that failed to undergo runaway accretion, it may underline the reason why giant planets are rare around low-metallicity host stars (one possibility is their shorter disk lifetimes). With a K-band magnitude of 7.1, TOI-2018 b may be a suitable target for transmission spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope. The system is also amenable to metastable Helium observation; the detection of a Helium exosphere would help distinguish between a H/He-enveloped planet and a water world.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science