A Massive Hot Jupiter Orbiting a Metal-rich Early M Star Discovered in the TESS Full-frame Images

Tianjun Gan, Charles Cadieux, Farbod Jahandar, Allona Vazan, Sharon X. Wang, Shude Mao, Jaime A. Alvarado-Montes, D. N.C. Lin, Étienne Artigau, Neil J. Cook, René Doyon, Andrew W. Mann, Keivan G. Stassun, Adam J. Burgasser, Benjamin V. Rackham, Steve B. Howell, Karen A. Collins, Khalid Barkaoui, Avi Shporer, Jerome de LeonLuc Arnold, George R. Ricker, Roland Vanderspek, David W. Latham, Sara Seager, Joshua N. Winn, Jon M. Jenkins, Artem Burdanov, David Charbonneau, Georgina Dransfield, Akihiko Fukui, Elise Furlan, Michaël Gillon, Matthew J. Hooton, Hannah M. Lewis, Colin Littlefield, Ismael Mireles, Norio Narita, Chris W. Ormel, Samuel N. Quinn, Ramotholo Sefako, Mathilde Timmermans, Michael Vezie, Julien de Wit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Observations and statistical studies have shown that giant planets are rare around M dwarfs compared with Sun-like stars. The formation mechanism of these extreme systems has remained under debate for decades. With the help of the TESS mission and ground-based follow-up observations, we report the discovery of TOI-4201b, the most massive and densest hot Jupiter around an M dwarf known so far with a radius of 1.22 ± 0.04 R J and a mass of 2.48 ± 0.09 M J, about 5 times heavier than most other giant planets around M dwarfs. It also has the highest planet-to-star mass ratio (q ∼ 4 × 10−3) among such systems. The host star is an early M dwarf with a mass of 0.61 ± 0.02 M and a radius of 0.63 ± 0.02 R . It has significant supersolar iron abundance ([Fe/H] = 0.52 ± 0.08 dex). However, interior structure modeling suggests that its planet TOI-4201b is metal-poor, which challenges the classical core-accretion correlation of stellar−planet metallicity, unless the planet is inflated by additional energy sources. Building on the detection of this planet, we compare the stellar metallicity distribution of four planetary groups: hot/warm Jupiters around G/M dwarfs. We find that hot/warm Jupiters show a similar metallicity dependence around G-type stars. For M-dwarf host stars, the occurrence of hot Jupiters shows a much stronger correlation with iron abundance, while warm Jupiters display a weaker preference, indicating possible different formation histories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number165
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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