A framework for geometric warps and deformations

Tim Milliron, Robert J. Jensen, Ronen Barzel, Adam Finkelstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


We present a framework for geometric warps and deformations. The framework provides a conceptual and mathematical foundation for analyzing known warps and for developing new warps, and serves as a common base for many warps and deformations. Our framework is composed of two components: a generic modular algorithm for warps and deformations; and a concise, geometrically meaningful formula that describes how warps are evaluated. Together, these two elements comprise a complete framework useful for analyzing, evaluating, designing, and implementing deformation algorithms. While the framework is independent of user-interfaces and geometric model representations and is formally capable of describing any warping algorithm, its design is geared toward the most prevalent class of user-controlled deformations: those computed using geometric operations. To demonstrate the expressive power of the framework, we cast several well-known warps in terms of the framework. To illustrate the framework's usefulness for analyzing and modifying existing warps, we present variations of these warps that provide additional functionality or improved behavior. To show the utility of the framework for developing new warps, we design a novel 3-D warping algorithm: a mesh warp - useful as a modeling and animation tool - that allows users to deform a detailed surface by manipulating a low-resolution mesh of similar shape. Finally, to demonstrate the mathematical utility of the framework, we use the framework to develop guarantees of several mathematical properties such as commutativity and continuity for large classes of deformations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-51
Number of pages32
JournalACM Transactions on Graphics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2002
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


  • Algorithms
  • Deformation
  • I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]
  • Picture/Image Generation
  • Warp


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