3for2: Realizing spatial, material, and energy savings through integrated design

Arno Schlueter, Adam Rysanek, Clayton Miller, Jovan Pantelic, Forrest Meggers, Matthias Mast, Marcel Bruelisauer, Chen Kian Wee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


As the world adapts to dual trends of climate change and urbanization, tall office buildings in hot and humid climate zones near the equator are among the prime candidates for a significant change in design approach. Though many individualized improvements to operating systems, envelopes and material selections have been introduced in recent years, it is generally agreed a holistic approach is needed to truly capitalize on the smaller-scale innovations. With a focus on reducing the necessary size of the services plenum, in this paper, an alternative paradigm for the optimization of space, material, and energy use in buildings is presented: A holistic integration of all building systems - structural, mechanical, and electrical - across a building's entire lifecycle, from early-stage design to construction and operation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-45
Number of pages6
JournalCTBUH Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Urban Studies


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